Have We Actually Reduced Poverty In India?
||01st October 2018
India recently relinquished its numerouno position of being home to the largest number of poor according to the Future Development blog of the World Bank’s Brooking Institute. Now, Nigeria has become home to the largest number of poor people or people living on less than USD 1.90 a day. It houses 87 million such people whereas India had just 73 million people as on May 2018.It has also been estimated that the number of people leaving poverty every minute is highest in India.However, a focus on income to arrive at poverty numbers for a country is only one aspect.Following the work of Sen (1999), the focus in the recent times has shifted to consider development as freedom from poverty, poor economic opportunities and social deprivations. Moreover, academicians argue that multidimensional estimates of poverty are a better indicator of poverty than unidimensional indicators. Additionally, as a statistic, poverty indicators estimated through unidimensional indices varies a great deal from poverty estimated using multidimensional indexes.
First, the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) calculated by University of Oxford assesses poverty by capturing deprivations with respect to health, education and living standards using indicators such as nutrition, school attendance and housing.In the Indian context itself, there is no corroboration between income aspects of deprivation and non-income parameters. Kerala, for example, has the lowest MPI i.e. l...